Initial values and boundary conditions must be speciﬁed for and to solve their respective transport equations. The ideal speciﬁcation of boundary conditions for and follows those for described in Sec. 4.3 .
Turbulence ﬁelds require: a ﬁxed value condition at inlets; zero gradient or inlet-outlet at outlets; and, a more complex speciﬁcation at solid walls, introduced in Sec. 7.7 .
Inlet values and must therefore be speciﬁed. There may be industry standards, published recommendations or measured data to help select these values for the speciﬁc problem being simulated.
A value for must then be speciﬁed in order to calculate the inlet and initial values of from Eq. (7.6 ). Procedures to estimate are also described in Sec. 7.3 . The values of and at inlet boundaries inﬂuence the solution throughout the CFD simulation, so should be estimated as accurately as possible.
The accuracy of the initial (internal) values is not so critical, since they do not inﬂuence the solution beyond a short period at the beginning of a simulation.
Initial values can, however, aﬀect stability during the early steps of a CFD simulation. The ﬂow boundary conditions generally cause sudden impulses which can generate large forces, causing ﬂuctuations in the solution of . Higher , based on initial and values, tends to cause larger ﬂuctuations, which may make the solution of the -equation unstable.