5.13 Steadystate convergence
The absence of a time derivative from an equation written in steadystate form reduces the diagonal dominance, and hence convergence, of the resulting matrix equation, as discussed in Sec. 5.5 . Underrelaxation is therefore applied to , and to promote convergence in the algorithm in Sec. 5.12 .
The and ﬁelds use equation underrelaxation with factors and , respectively. A value of 0.7 is commonly applied, decreasing to 0.5 for less convergent cases (and sometimes to 0.3 in compressible ﬂow cases, beyond the scope of this book).
Underrelaxation of is more subtle. The ﬂux corrector requires that is not underrelaxed to ensure obeys mass conservation better. For the momentum corrector, ﬁeld underrelaxation is subsequently applied to with a factor . To ﬁnd an optimal for the momentum corrector, we examine

(5.22) 
Convergence is compromised by the explicit nature of . It can be more implicit by “adding and subtracting” , where coeﬃcients are applied to in the “owner” cells:

(5.23) 

(5.24) 

(5.25) 

(5.26) 
Residual control
The algorithm in Sec. 5.12 uses a ﬁxed number of solution steps . In practice, must be chosen to be large enough to reach an acceptable level of convergence. Once convergence is reached, the simulation should stop to avoid unnecessary computing cost.
A common stopping criterion applies a residual level for each equation, below which the equation is deemed to be converged. When all equations satisfy their respective residual controls, the simulation then stops.
Convergence can also be determined by monitoring any suitable metric, including objective measurements from the simulation, e.g. a force coeﬃcient. When the metric no longer changes signiﬁcantly over subsequent steps, the simulation is stopped.